Skip to content

Introduction to Singularity

In this section we're going to be working with Singularity Community Edition (CE)

Wait, what is "Apptainer", and what is the difference between SingularityCE and Apptainer?

The Singularity project was split into multiple projects managed by different organizations since it was created in 2017.

In a nutshell:

  • Greg Kurtzer founded the Singularity project while at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • Kurtzer created Sylabs, a private company, around Singularity
  • Kurtzer left Sylabs to focus on CIQ, another private company, and moved Singularity to HPCng (a Community Org)
  • Sylabs forked Singularity for control and professionially licensed support creating Singularity Community Edition"
  • HPCng gave the official project to Linux Foundation and renamed it "Apptainer"
  • Apptainer is being marketed by CIQ

At the present time, Apptainer and Singularity CE have highly similar syntax and will run Singularity .sif images interoperably

Docker vs SingularityCE & Apptainer

Apptainer and SingularityCE are 100% compatible with Docker but they do have some distinct differences


Docker containers run as root

  • This privilege is almost never supported by administrators of High Performance Computing (HPC) centers. Meaning Docker is not, and will likely never be, installed natively on your HPC cluster.

uses compressed layers to create one image

SingularityCE & Apptainer:

Same user and group identity inside as outside the container

User only has root privileges if elevated with sudo when the container is run

Can run and modify any existing Docker image

  • These key differences allow Singularity to be installed on most HPC centers. Because you can run virtually all Docker containers in Singularity, you can effectively run Docker on an HPC.

SingularityCE Installation

Sylabs Singularity Community Edition (CE) homepage:

Apptainer Linux Foundation homepage:


SingularityCE or Apptainer can both be installed from Conda:

conda install -c conda-forge singularityce
conda install -c conda-forge apptainer

Install Locally

To Install Singularity follow the instructions for your specific OS:


Module loading on HPC

If you are interested in working with SingularityCE on HPC, you may need to contact your systems administrator and request they install SingularityCE. Because SingularityCE ideally needs setuid, your admins may have some qualms about giving SingularityCE this privilege. If that is the case, you might consider forwarding this letter to your admins.

Most HPC systems are running Environment Modules with the simple command module.

You can check to see what is available:

$ module avail singularity

If Singularity is listed as being installed, load a specific version, e.g.:

$ module load singularity/3/3.9

Install in CodeSpaces

Let's use Conda (or optionally, Mamba)

conda install -c conda-forge singularityce

mamba install -c conda-forge singularityce

Singularity CLI

Singularity’s command line interface allows you to build and interact with containers transparently. You can run programs inside a container as if they were running on your host system. You can easily redirect IO, use pipes, pass arguments, and access files, sockets, and ports on the host system from within a container.


The help command gives an overview of Singularity options and subcommands as follows:

 $ singularity help pull
Pull an image from a URI

  singularity pull [pull options...] [output file] <URI>

  The 'pull' command allows you to download or build a container from a given
  URI. Supported URIs include:

  library: Pull an image from the currently configured library

  docker: Pull a Docker/OCI image from Docker Hub, or another OCI registry.

  shub: Pull an image from Singularity Hub

  oras: Pull a SIF image from an OCI registry that supports ORAS.

  http, https: Pull an image using the http(s?) protocol

      --arch string      architecture to pull from library (default "amd64")
      --dir string       download images to the specific directory
      --disable-cache    dont use cached images/blobs and dont create them
      --docker-login     login to a Docker Repository interactively
  -F, --force            overwrite an image file if it exists
  -h, --help             help for pull
      --library string   download images from the provided library
      --no-cleanup       do NOT clean up bundle after failed build, can be
                         helpful for debugging
      --no-https         use http instead of https for docker:// oras://
                         and library://<hostname>/... URIs

  From Sylabs cloud library
  $ singularity pull alpine.sif library://alpine:latest

  From Docker
  $ singularity pull tensorflow.sif docker://tensorflow/tensorflow:latest

  From Shub
  $ singularity pull singularity-images.sif shub://vsoch/singularity-images

  From supporting OCI registry (e.g. Azure Container Registry)
  $ singularity pull image.sif oras://<username>

For additional help or support, please visit

Just like with Docker, you can search the Singularity container registries for images.

singularity search tensorflow


The easiest way to use a Singularity is to pull an existing container from one of the Registries.

singularity pull library://lolcow
singularity pull docker://<yourusername>/cowsay

Downloading pre-built images

You can use the pull command to download pre-built images from a number of Container Registries, here we'll be focusing on the Singularity-Hub or DockerHub.

Container Registries:

  • library:// - images hosted on Sylabs Cloud
  • docker:// - images hosted on Docker Hub
  • localimage:// - images saved on your machine
  • yum:// - yum based systems such as CentOS and Scientific Linux
  • debootstrap:// - apt based systems such as Debian and Ubuntu
  • arch:// - Arch Linux
  • busybox:// - BusyBox
  • zypper:// - zypper based systems such as Suse and OpenSuse

  • shub:// - (archived) images hosted on Singularity Hub, no longer maintained

Pulling an image from Singularity Hub

Similar to previous example, in this example I am pulling a base Ubuntu container from Singularity-Hub:

$ singularity pull shub://singularityhub/ubuntu
WARNING: Authentication token file not found : Only pulls of public images will succeed
88.58 MiB / 88.58 MiB [===============================================================================================] 100.00% 31.86 MiB/s 2s

You can rename the container using the --name flag:

$ singularity pull --name ubuntu_test.simg shub://singularityhub/ubuntu
WARNING: Authentication token file not found : Only pulls of public images will succeed
88.58 MiB / 88.58 MiB [===============================================================================================] 100.00% 35.12 MiB/s 2s

The above command will save the alpine image from the Container Library as alpine.sif

Pulling an image from Docker Hub

This example pulls an ubuntu:16.04 image from DockerHub and saves it to the working directory.

$ singularity pull docker://ubuntu:20.04
INFO:    Converting OCI blobs to SIF format
INFO:    Starting build...
Getting image source signatures
Copying blob 8f6b7df711c8 done
Copying blob 0703c52b8763 done
Copying blob 07304348ce1b done
Copying blob 4795dceb8869 done
Copying config 05ac933964 done
Writing manifest to image destination
Storing signatures
2020/03/09 16:14:12  info unpack layer: sha256:8f6b7df711c8a4733138390ff2aba1bfeb755bf4736c39c6e4858076c40fb5eb
2020/03/09 16:14:13  info unpack layer: sha256:0703c52b8763604318dcbb1730c82ad276a487335ecabde2f43f69a6222e8090
2020/03/09 16:14:13  info unpack layer: sha256:07304348ce1b6d24f136a3c4ebaa800297b804937a6942ce9e9fe0dac0b0ca74
2020/03/09 16:14:13  info unpack layer: sha256:4795dceb8869bdfa64f3742e1df492e6f31baf9cfc36f1a042a8f981607e99a2
INFO:    Creating SIF file...
INFO:    Build complete: ubuntu_20.04.sif


Pulling Docker images reduces reproducibility. If you were to pull a Docker image today and then wait six months and pull again, you are not guaranteed to get the same image. If any of the source layers has changed the image will be altered. If reproducibility is a priority for you, try building your images from the Container Library.

Pulling an image from Sylabs cloud library

Let’s use an easy example of alpine.sif image from the container library


You can use singularity search <name> command to locate groups, collections, and containers of interest on the Container Library

Interact with images

You can interact with images in several ways such as shell, exec and run.

For these examples we will use a cowsay_latest.sif image that can be pulled from the Docker Hub.

$ singularity pull docker://tswetnam/cowsay
INFO:    Downloading library image
 67.00 MiB / 67.00 MiB [=====================================================================================================] 100.00% 5.45 MiB/s 12s
WARNING: unable to verify container: cowsay_latest.sif
WARNING: Skipping container verification

$ sudo singularity run cowsay_latest.sif
/ Expect a letter from a friend who will \
\ ask a favor of you.                    /
    \   ^__^
     \  (oo)\_______
        (__)\       )\/\
        ||----w |
        ||     ||


The shell command allows you to spawn a new shell within your container and interact with it as though it were a small virtual machine.

$ singularity shell cowsay_latest.sif
  Singularity cowsay_latest.sif:~>

The change in prompt indicates that you have entered the container (though you should not rely on that to determine whether you are in container or not).

Once inside of a Singularity container, you are the same user as you are on the host system.

$ Singularity cowsay_latest.sif:~> whoami


shell also works with the library://, docker://, and shub:// URIs. This creates an ephemeral container that disappears when the shell is exited.


The exec command allows you to execute a custom command within a container by specifying the image file. For instance, to execute the cowsay program within the cowsay_latest.sif container:

$ singularity exec cowsay_latest.sif cowsay container camp rocks
< container camp rocks >
        \   ^__^
         \  (oo)\_______
            (__)\       )\/\
                ||----w |
                ||     ||

exec also works with the library://, docker://, and shub:// URIs.

singularity exec library://lolcow container camp 2022

This creates an ephemeral container that executes a command and disappears.


Singularity containers contain runscripts. These are user defined scripts that define the actions a container should perform when someone runs it. The runscript can be triggered with the run command, or simply by calling the container as though it were an executable.

singularity run lolcow_latest.sif
/  You will remember, Watson, how the     \
| dreadful business of the Abernetty      |
| family was first brought to my notice   |
| by the depth which the parsley had sunk |
| into the butter upon a hot day.         |
|                                         |
\ -- Sherlock Holmes                      /
        \   ^__^
         \  (oo)\_______
            (__)\       )\/\
                ||----w |
                ||     ||


The inspect command will provide information about labels, metadata, and environmental variables.

singularity inspect lolcow.sif
singularity inspect library://lolcow


See Next Section for details of build